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Echinacea Monograph


Echinacea, commonly known as coneflower, is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. Native to North America, especially the central and eastern regions, it has been widely recognized for its medicinal properties. Traditionally used by Native American tribes, Echinacea has gained popularity worldwide as a natural remedy, particularly for its purported immune-boosting effects.

Botanical Description

Echinacea species are perennial plants with distinctive flowers. They typically grow to heights between 1 to 4 feet, with large, daisy-like flowers that have pink, purple, or white petals and a prominent, spiny central cone. The three most commonly used species in herbal medicine are:

  • Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower)

  • Echinacea angustifolia (Narrow-leaved Coneflower)

  • Echinacea pallida (Pale Purple Coneflower)

Chemical Constituents

Echinacea contains several active compounds believed to contribute to its therapeutic effects, including:

  • Alkamides: Known for their anti-inflammatory properties and ability to modulate the immune system.

  • Polysaccharides: These large sugar molecules are thought to stimulate the immune system.

  • Glycoproteins: Proteins with attached carbohydrate molecules, also involved in immune modulation.

  • Caffeic Acid Derivatives: Such as echinacoside and chicoric acid, which have antioxidant properties.

Traditional and Modern Uses

Historically, Native American tribes used Echinacea for a variety of purposes, including treating wounds, infections, and snake bites. In contemporary herbal medicine, Echinacea is primarily marketed and used for:

  • Immune Support: Believed to help prevent and treat the common cold and other upper respiratory infections.

  • Anti-inflammatory Effects: Used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  • Wound Healing: Applied topically to aid in the healing of skin conditions and wounds.

Pharmacological Actions

Echinacea's effects on the immune system have been the subject of numerous studies. Key pharmacological actions include:

  • Immune Modulation: Echinacea is thought to enhance the immune response by increasing the production of white blood cells and stimulating phagocytosis.

  • Antiviral Activity: Some studies suggest that Echinacea may inhibit the replication of certain viruses.

  • Anti-inflammatory Properties: Echinacea's alkamides and other constituents exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, potentially beneficial in treating conditions like arthritis.

Clinical Evidence

The clinical evidence supporting Echinacea's efficacy is mixed. Some studies indicate a modest benefit in reducing the duration and severity of the common cold, while others show no significant effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials suggests that while Echinacea may have a slight preventive effect on the incidence of colds, its therapeutic benefits remain inconclusive.

Dosage and Administration

Echinacea is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, liquid extracts, and teas. Typical dosages vary depending on the preparation, but common recommendations include:

  • Echinacea purpurea Extract: 300 mg three times daily.

  • Echinacea Angustifolia Root Extract: 0.5-1 g dried root or equivalent extract per day.

  • Liquid Extracts (Tinctures): 2.5 mL three times daily.

Safety and Side Effects

Echinacea is generally well-tolerated when used short-term. However, potential side effects can include:

  • Allergic Reactions: Particularly in individuals allergic to plants in the daisy family (Asteraceae).

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Such as nausea and stomach pain.

  • Potential for Immunosuppression: With long-term use, leading to caution in patients with autoimmune disorders.

Contraindications and Interactions

  • Autoimmune Diseases: Due to its immune-stimulating properties, caution is advised for individuals with autoimmune conditions.

  • Allergies: Those with known allergies to ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, or daisies should avoid Echinacea.

  • Immunosuppressant Medications: Echinacea may interfere with the effectiveness of these drugs.


Echinacea remains a popular herbal remedy, especially for immune support and cold prevention. While traditional uses and anecdotal evidence support its benefits, clinical research provides mixed results. As with any herbal supplement, it is important to consider individual health conditions and potential interactions with medications. Future research may further elucidate the specific mechanisms and optimal uses of Echinacea in modern medicine.



  1. Barrett, B. (2003). Medicinal properties of Echinacea: A critical review. Phytomedicine, 10(1), 66-86.

  2. Shah, S. A., Sander, S., White, C. M., Rinaldi, M., & Coleman, C. I. (2007). Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(7), 473-480.

  3. Barnes, J., Anderson, L. A., & Gibbons, S. (2005). Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): A review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57(8), 929-954.

  4. Melchart, D., Linde, K., Worku, F., Sarkady, L., Holzmann, M., Jurcic, K., & Wagner, H. (1994). Immunomodulation with Echinacea—a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 1(3), 245-254.

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The herbalist, chemist, and medicine maker at Asili Apothecary, Gloria created this space to facilitate healing and learning for yourself and those around you. The apothecary and homestead is based in Fayetteville, NC. Gloria enjoys time with her family and Mother Nature.

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